FAQ2020-10-20T11:39:41+02:00

FAQ

Some of the common questions in the field of Direct Air Capture.

What is your plan for building a first facility?2020-10-02T13:01:51+02:00

The plan is for the first facility to be operational by 2027. The facility is intended to be built in a consortium with some major shareholders.

Does a DAC have to be large? Can you not make several small ones?2020-10-02T13:01:27+02:00

If a DAC is to become economically defensible, larger units are required. 

Who do you want to finance Nordic DAC’s work?2020-10-02T13:01:02+02:00

To get started on a large scale, it would be very helpful with state support. Like wind turbines, it takes a while for technology prices to fall, while the cost of carbon dioxide emissions is expected to increase in the coming years. As a result, DAC is a strong alternative for companies that want to radically reduce their carbon dioxide emissions and in sectors that have difficulty eliminating emissions or where it is associated with excessive costs such as transport, aviation and industry.

 

Since global warming is precisely global, the cost should be borne by states, the EU and the UN and distributed in accordance with each country’s emissions.

With many DAC units, we can continue to emit carbon dioxide. But society must change. Won’t many DACs contribute to business as usual?2020-10-02T13:00:21+02:00

If we quickly expand a large number of DAC units, we will have more time to adjust. As things stand, we need to do a lot in many areas.   

Is it not better to collect carbon dioxide where it is more concentrated, as in coal power plants?2020-10-02T12:59:58+02:00

To prevent a rampant climate, we must all do what we can to prevent more carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere. And the sooner the better, but to only reduce emissions to reasonable levels is currently almost impossible so we simply have to vacuum up the abundance that is in the atmosphere . However, this should not be seen as a competitor to tree planting as it must also be done as it creates very many other values such as carbon dioxide buffers, biodiversity, water reservoirs etcetera.  

Isn’t new technology to get rid of carbon dioxide using a DAC really just a new form of greenwash?2020-10-02T12:59:37+02:00

Our technology works and is extremely effective in creating negative emissions and taking back the carbon dioxide that has been released into the atmosphere for decades. If we build 40,000 DAC units, each of which takes back one million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, we could take back as much carbon dioxide as is released into the atmosphere each year . According to the research community, the goal is to return to an atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration of 350 ppm. This was already passed in 1990 and this corresponds to an amount of about 870 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide that must be removed over time. 

How many DAC units are required to collect as much carbon dioxide as Sweden emits annually and what would it cost?2020-10-02T12:59:13+02:00

Sweden currently emits approximately 58 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. This means that with approximately 58 DAC plants, we can take back as much carbon dioxide as we emit. The cost of this lands at approximately SEK 580 billion and an additional approximately SEK 58 billion for the operating cost per year. By producing air-to- fuel, part of the cost can be financed.

If you build a DAC in the Nordics, what happens if it snows or rains? Does it work as well as if it is not snowing/raining?2020-10-02T12:58:55+02:00

The test facility in Squamish, Canada has been in operation since 2015 and their climate is similar to the Swedish climate, so we see no reason why it would not be possible to locate facilities in Scandinavia.

Where on earth does it work to build DAC´s?2020-10-02T12:58:34+02:00

Where there is proximity to renewable energy and water. Otherwise, a DAC facility can be built anywhere.  

What kind of materials are used to build a DAC? Where are the materials bought?2020-10-02T12:58:02+02:00

For the first plant in the Nordic region, the idea is to use the world-leading DAC pioneer Carbon Engineering’s patents and drawings and with their support design the first DAC plant. Most industrial components are standardized and can be purchased from several different suppliers.

Has the information you have produced been reviewed by others? Which?2020-10-02T12:57:42+02:00

We have a collaboration with Chalmers and RISE in Sweden who will make their own techno-economic analysis of DAC technicians based on the reports and articles that have already been published on the subject.

What proof do you have that your numbers are correct?2020-10-02T12:57:17+02:00

There are several reports on the subject that describe a very wide range of possible cost outcomes. There are even reports describing costs as high as $800/ ton today BUT with a halving of the cost by 2030.

With the leading technology from Carbon Engineering , calculations have been made between the range of 94-232 $ USD/ton of carbon dioxide captured.

Techno-economic assessment of CO2 direct air capture plants

Mahdi Fasihi *, Olga Efimova, Christian Breyer

Joule Article

A Process for Capturing CO2 from the Atmosphere

David W. Keith, Geoffrey Holmes, David St. Angelo, Kenton Heidel

Will the cost decrease over time? How much?2020-10-02T12:56:46+02:00

In the long run, the target is below $150/ tonne by 2030 and further below $100/tonne before 2050, but according to some calculations, it may fall below that limit by a margin. But these are estimates and there are many factors that come into play. Factors on assumptions about reasonable cost reductions for equipment for scaling up, service life of the plant, cost for maintenance, electricity and heat price, and cost for land and water use. On the other hand, it is important to point out that the reports made in this area agree that the cost will fall over time, as well as that the need for negative emissions increases with each passing year.

How much carbon dioxide should the first DAC plant take back per year?2020-10-02T12:56:23+02:00

The first commercial DAC facility built by Carbon Engineering will be completed in 2023 and is being built in Texas. It will capture about one million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. This corresponds to the emissions from 250,000 cars or as much as 40 million trees can extract.

Where does Nordic DAC want to build the first DAC?2020-10-02T12:56:01+02:00

We will investigate several different alternatives in the Nordic region where proximity to the final repository and the possibility of renewable energy are crucial. We will also investigate what synergy effects can be achieved by constructing it near an industry in order to be able to share existing infrastructure or use waste heat or some other energy.

Where should the carbon dioxide that is sucked back be stored?2020-10-02T12:55:22+02:00

There are alternatives. Storage off the coast of Norway is perhaps the most relevant, but there are also favorable conditions in Iceland, Germany and the Netherlands. In addition to this, areas in the Baltic Sea and outside Gotland will also be investigated in case there are conditions for storage there.

 

What are the goals of Nordic DAC with carbon dioxide? Should everything be buried underground? Should some be used for renewable fuel? What is the difference in percentage?2020-10-02T12:55:00+02:00

Of course, we hope that everything that is captured will go back into the earth again, but in order to get started properly and on such a large scale that the price drops for carbon capture, we will most likely need to make fuels from parts of the captured carbon dioxide. This would then be during a transitional period until all cars and aircraft, etcetera are electrified, use hydrogen or some other fossil-free fuel. If we can use the carbon in the air instead of taking it from oil, no new CO2 is added to the atmosphere, but the cycle becomes much more circular. We intend to store at least 50% of the captured carbon dioxide.

If you have financing, how long does it take before a DAC can be built in the Nordic region?2020-10-02T12:54:08+02:00

2-5 years, this depends a lot on location and how fast the permit processes take.

How many people are needed to run a DAC?2020-10-02T12:53:38+02:00

It counts between 70-80 employees for the business for a mega ton plant which is imilar to the cellulose and process industry.

How is a DAC operated? Which energy source(s) are used?2020-10-02T12:52:47+02:00

A DAC is primarily powered by renewable energy, but it can also be powered by natural gas. It can also be operated with a combination of renewable energy/natural gas. If natural gas is used, it is recaptured.

If only electricity is used, a DAC plant that captures one million tonnes will use about 150 MW of renewable energy.

Have you done a life cycle analysis for a DAC?2020-10-02T12:52:10+02:00

A Life Cycle Analysis has been conducted on a pilot basis in Canada and must be done for each DAC plant. This is something that will be verified by Det Norske Veritas, which is a third-party auditor

Why not invest in tree planting instead of building DAC facilities?2020-10-02T12:51:43+02:00

from the atmosphere and through chemical reactions the carbon dioxide is extracted. It is then heated and then changes to physical form. It can then be stored. Unlike trees, it is much faster to capture carbon dioxide in a DAC and the amount captured is measurable and controllable. In addition, less land and water use is required. The compressed carbon dioxide captured by a DAC can also be stored permanently underground. Unlike trees that bind carbon dioxide in the biomass which can burn up, be felled or get diseases. That risk does not exist with a DAC.

How do air-to- fuels work?2020-10-02T12:51:16+02:00

An air-to- fuels -process begins by renewable energy used to split hydrogen from water. The hydrogen is then combined with carbon dioxide captured from the atmosphere. This turns into synthetic raw fuel. It can then be processed to become fuel that can be used in cars, in aircraft and for boat engines. The technology can be an excellent complement for vehicles that are unlikely to be electrified quickly. The fuel produced by air-to- fuels technology can be produced with 100 times less land use than is required for biofuels.

How much space does a DAC require?2020-10-02T12:50:51+02:00

A DAC that captures one million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year requires an area of ​​25 hectares, which corresponds to about 80 football (soccer) pitches. An Air to fuels unit that can produce 2000 barrels of fuel per day requires an area of ​​approximately 30 hectares in addition to this.

What does it cost to build a DAC plant and what does it cost to take back a ton of carbon dioxide?2020-10-02T12:49:46+02:00

The first DAC plant that can capture about one million tons of carbon dioxide costs in the order of about 1 billion USD. But the price will drop for each facility built. The cost per tonne of carbon dioxide that is removed should in the short term fall to approximately SEK 1,000 per tonne.

What does it cost to build a DAC plant and what does it cost to take back a ton of carbon dioxide?2020-09-30T17:56:29+02:00

The first DAC plant that can capture about one million tons of carbon dioxide costs in the order of about 1 billion USD. But the price will drop for each facility built. The cost per tonne of carbon dioxide that is removed should in the short term fall to approximately SEK 1,000 per tonne.

Is it possible to do clean transportation fuels from air?2020-09-30T08:55:15+02:00

The atmospheric CO2 delivered by Direct Air Capture can be used to produce clean transportation fuels. We call this the AIR TO FUELSTM process.

CE’s AIR TO FUELSTM process starts by using renewable electricity to split hydrogen from water, then combines the hydrogen with captured atmospheric CO2 to produce synthetic crude. This ‘syncrude’ can then be processed into common gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel that works in the engines of existing vehicles without the need to modify them. This technology can form an important complement to electric vehicles by providing a clean renewable fuel for those sectors of transportation that are unlikely to be electrified and that require the high energy density of liquid fuels – long haul transport, marine and air travel.

The AIR TO FUELSTM process produces fuels that are cleaner burning than fossil fuels and can be produced with 100 times less land use than biofuels. Most importantly, our fuels can be produced and used with very low or even zero addition of CO2 to the atmosphere (depending on the energy source used to power the DAC facility). Burning our fuels releases the CO2 that was captured to produce them, but the process would add little or no new carbon emissions to the air because it creates a circular system of emissions in which we continually reuse the atmospheric CO2.The atmospheric CO2 delivered by Direct Air Capture can be used to produce clean transportation fuels. We call this the AIR TO FUELSTM process.

How can Direct Air Capture help with Net Zero?2020-09-30T08:55:50+02:00

Direct Air Capture can help the world decarbonize and achieve critical net zero targets by producing clean transportation fuels, and large-scale carbon removal.

To restore a healthy balance of carbon in the air and maintain a safe climate, we must reduce the amount of carbon we emit each day, and also remove excess carbon from the atmosphere to get us back to safe levels. Direct Air Capture can play both of these roles. It can be used to prevent new CO2 emissions, and also, to permanently remove excess CO2—making it a powerful ingredient in any net zero plan.

Reducing Emissions: CO2 captured from the air can be used to produce synthetic fuels that have little or no carbon footprint. These fuels can help reduce transportation emissions by directly replacing fossil fuels.

Removal of Emissions: Direct Air Capture can create permanent carbon removal, or negative emissions, when the captured atmospheric CO2 is permanently and safely stored deep underground.

What is Direct Air Capture?2020-09-30T08:56:26+02:00

Direct Air Capture is a technology that captures carbon dioxide directly from the air with an engineered, mechanical system. Direct Air Capture technology does this by pulling in atmospheric air, then through a series of chemical reactions, extracts the carbon dioxide (CO2) from it while returning the rest of the air to the environment. This is what plants and trees do every day as they photosynthesize, except Direct Air Capture technology does it much faster, with a smaller land footprint, and delivers the carbon dioxide in a pure, compressed form that can then be stored underground or reused.

How do Direct Air Capture works?2020-09-30T08:54:05+02:00

Direct Air Capture technology has four major pieces of equipment. The process starts with an air contactor, which is a large structure modelled off industrial cooling towers. A giant fan pulls air into this structure, where it passes over thin plastic surfaces that have potassium hydroxide solution flowing over them. This non-toxic solution chemically binds with the CO2 molecules, removing them from the air and trapping them in the liquid solution as a carbonate salt.

The CO2 contained in this carbonate solution is then put through a series of chemical processes to increase its concentration, purify and compress it, so it can be delivered in gas form ready for use or storage. This involves separating the salt out from solution into small pellets in a structure called a pellet reactor. These pellets are then heated in our third step, a calciner, in order to release the CO2 in pure gas form. This step also leaves behind processed pellets that are hydrated in a slaker and recycled back within the system to reproduce the original capture chemical.

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